Monday, December 2, 2019
The Nervous System The nervous system is the most complex part of the body, as they govern our thoughts, feelings, and bodily functions. It is an important factor in science because it can lead to new discoveries for cures or diseases. The studies of the nervous system helped lower death rates from heart disease, stroke, accidents, etc. The nervous system is a network of neurons (nerve cells) that that sends information to the brain to be analyzed. Neurons live both in and outside the central nervous system. Understanding how the neurons work is vital to understanding the nervous system. Neurons The neuron has two important structures called the dendrite and axon, also called nerve fibers. The dendrites are like tentacles that sprout from the cell and the axon is one long extension of the cell. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons, while the axon sends impulses to other neurons. Axons can extend to more than a meter long. Average sized neurons have hundreds of dendrites; therefore it can receive thousands of signals simultaneously from other neurons. The neuron sends impulses by connection the axon to the dendrites of another nerve cell. The synapse is a gap between the axon and the adjacent neuron, which is where data is transmitted from one neuron to another. The neuron is negatively charged and it bathes in fluids that contain positively charged potassium and sodium ions. The membrane of the neuron holds negatively charged protein molecules. The neuron has pores called ion channels to allow sodium ions to pass into the membrane, but prevent the protein molecules from escaping (potassium ions can freely pass through the membrane since the ion channels mostly restrict sodium ions). When a neuron is stimulated (not at rest), the pores open and the sodium ions rush in because of its attraction to the negatively charged protein molecules, which makes the cell positively charged. As a result, potential energy is released and the neurons send electrical impulses through the axon until the impulse reaches the synapse of any neurons near it. Once the signal is sent, the ion balances out and becomes at rest. The electrical impulse that runs down the axon releases a chemical called acetylcholine, only one of many chemicals that transmits signals across the synapse. These substances are called neurotransmitters because they transmit data from one neuron to another. Once the chemical binds to the dendrites of another neuron, it is converted back to an electrical impulse, which is brought to the cell body. The impulse is then sent to another neuron, and the process repeats until the nerves are at rest. The effect of the signals depends on what the target is. If the target of the signal is a muscle cell, the effect might be a muscle contraction. The speed of the electrical impulse depends on the size of the nerve fiber. In small nerves, the rate it transmits impulses is from a half to two meters a second. The larger the diameter of the nerve fiber, the higher rate of conducting impulses. There is less electrical resistance in thick fibers. When nerve impulse jumps from one node (gaps in nerve fibers) to the next, it is called saltatory conduction. Saltatory conduction conducts faster because it contains an insulator that prevents leakage of currents. The rate of conduction is 2 to 120 meters a second. Not all nerves conduct impulse electrochemically. Some impulses jump from nerve to nerve, bypassing the synapse. Unlike other cells, once neurons are lost, they cant be regenerated. Fortunately, there are about 10 billion neurons and they have other cells to aid them in carrying messages to other nerves. But if nerves are severed, the nerve fibers can regenerate if the two ends are reattached precisely. However, restored functions may produce different actions because the nerves might not be connected to the right channel. There are three main parts of the nervous system: the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous system. The brain and spinal cord makes up central nervous system, the spinal and cranial nerves form the peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system is made from various glands and muscles. Central Nervous System The brain and spinal cord forms the Central Nervous System. The
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Word Families - a Quick Reference for Teachers Word Families are sometimes referred to as groups, chunks or rimes. A word family has something in common with each other, have it be the prefix, suffix or root word. For example, green, grass, grow all have the gr sound in the beginning of the word. What are the Benefits? Word families are important because they help young children recognize and analyze word patterns when they are learning to read. When teaching analytic phonics, teachers use word families to help children understand these patterns and that certain words have the same letter combinations and sounds. Most Common Word Families According to researchers Wylie and Durrel, there are 37 common word families: ack, ain, ake, ale, all, ame, an, ank, ap, ash, at, ate, aw, ay, eat, ell, est, ice, ick, ide, ight, ill, in, ine, ing, ink, ip, it, ock, oke, op, ore, ot, uck ,ug, ump, unk. ack- back, hack, pack, rackain - brain, chain, main, plainake - awake, bake, cake, fakeale - ale, bale, sale, taleall - all, ball, call, hallame - blame, came, game, samean - an, ban, can, panank - bank, drank, sank, tankap - cap, map, rap, tapash - bash, dash, rash, sashat - bat, cat, fat, matate - fate, gate, late, rateaw - claw, draw, paw, saway - day, hay, may, sayeat - beat, feat, meat, seatell - bell, fell, tell, wellest - best, rest, vest, westice - dice, mice, nice, riceick - brick, kick, pick, sickide - bride, hide, ride, sideight - bright, fight, light, nightill - bill, hill, pill, stillin - bin, chin, grin, tinine - dine, fine, mine, vineing - bring, king, sing, wingink - drink, link, pink, sinkip - chip, dip, lip, sipit - bit, fit, hit, sitock - block, clock, rock, sockop - cop, hop, mop, topore - bore, more, sore, toreot - got, hot, not, rotuck - buck, duck luck, tuckug - bug, hug, mug, rugump - bump, dump, jump, pumpunk - bunk, dunk, junk,sunk Source: Richard E. Wylie and Donald D. Durrell, 1970. Teaching Vowels Through Phonograms. Elementary English 47, 787-791.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
When bullet points are a bad choice Why bullets wont make your case Bullets are designed to call out key points and help the reader scan large amounts of information. Or at least, thats the idea. You can start out with good intentions when you use them Ã¢â¬â youre probably trying to make life easier for your readers. Perhaps youre trying to create a document thats snappy, easy to understand, and that looks clean and modern. Unfortunately, in practice, bullet points can do the exact opposite. Endless bullets can be tedious to read. Theyve been around since the 80s, so they no longer automatically make a document look particularly modern. And when theyre used in the wrong context, theyre anything but easy to understand. One way that using bullets can badly misfire is when the author uses them to present an argument. A bullet list does not an argument make The theory: When you have a complex argument or analysis to explain, bullet points are a great idea. By breaking your argument into separate bullet points, you can make it easy to understand. Your reader just takes in each idea, one by one. The reality: This often doesnt work, largely because of what psychologists call the illusion of transparency. The illusion of transparency is the mistaken idea that whatever is going on in our own heads is obvious to other people. A classic demonstration of this is for one person to tap out a familiar tune (like Happy birthday or their national anthem) with their finger and then ask another person to guess the song. Try it for yourself. Think of a famous tune and tap it out to a friend or colleague. You will be amazed at how few people can correctly guess the song youre tapping out Ã¢â¬â experiments find that listeners guess correctly only around 3 per cent of the time. To you, it seems utterly obvious that youre tapping out a well-known tune. But the listener can only hear disconnected taps. Disconnected points Bullet points do exactly the same thing in writing. If you dont explicitly draw the connections between the ideas in your writing, you cant rely on your readers spotting the connections for themselves. The illusion of transparency reminds us that this is usually the case even when the connections between your bullet points are obvious to you. Of course, you can draw connections in ordinary running text. Our language is full of connective words that show the relationships between ideas. These include words like but, and, so, because, or, either and instead. But while you can (and probably naturally would) use words like these in regular structured prose to link your ideas, bullet points strip all of them away. And without them, you cant say Ã¢â¬â unequivocally Ã¢â¬â how ideas relate to each other. You cant talk about how or why a particular point is important Ã¢â¬â or not. And you cant expect your reader to fill in the blanks between your bullet points, as theyll often miss the links that seem obvious to you. Assemble the pieces You may have seen whole reports, proposals or emails that are little more than a list of bullets. The fact is, sometimes we might reach for bullet points as an alternative to fully planning out what it is were trying to say. It can be tempting, especially under time pressure, to try to skip over this part of the process and leave our reader to put the pieces together. But simply laying out a list of facts in bullet points does not by itself constitute a document, or an analysis, or a summary Ã¢â¬â its just a shortcut to nowhere. Documents like that never do your expertise and analysis justice, and theyre very unlikely to leave the reader informed, persuaded or happy. Instead, you need to make sure you do the work to assemble your argument first. If you start by being clear in your own mind what the connections are, you can then make these clear to your reader Ã¢â¬â and be sure theyll get your point. This post is taken from a larger lesson about the perils of misused bullet points (and better alternatives) in our online-learning programme, Emphasis 360. The programme is designed to transform your writing step by step in practical, bite-sized lessons. You can try it out for free here. Image credit: hin255 / Shutterstock
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Principles of Building Structure - Essay Example When the beam has sufficient supported against any form of buckling, a failure of the beam is experienced. This results in the generation of the maximum material yield at one point of the maximum moment (Brett 1989). Hence, the applied loads have the potential of ensuring that the beam reaches its plastic moment capacity. This beam is regarded as laterally supported beam and the yield stress governs the design strength. When beams bend on a major axis, they tend to develop a stronger stiffness and strength. Thus, such beams become vulnerable to failure that results from lateral torsional buckling before they acquire their in-plane capacity of the plastic moment, which will brace them against lateral twisting and deflection. These types of beams are regarded as laterally supported beams. Beams bending strength design is governed by yielding and supported against buckling. A laterally braced section of a beam has a bending strength, which is the plastic moment Mp. Inelastic deformation is expected at the service load when the shape factor of the beam is large. However, for shape factors that exceed 1.5, 1.5My limit is applied at the factor load in order to control the inelastic deformation of the various sections of the beam. Such a provision is not expected to limit the plastic moment for the hybrid section when the yield stress is considered to be less than the expected flange yield stress. However, web yielding is not associated with any significant inelastic deformations. When the inertia moment about the axis of bending is less or equal to the out of plane inertia moment, lateral-torsional buckling never develops. Therefore, for shapes, which are bent within the minor axis and those that have lz = ly, lateral-torsional buckling limit state does not apply. Such shapes include circles and squares. Lateral buckling of a beam does not occur when the compression of the flange is adequate and the flexural
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Strategic Planning of Amazon.com, Inc - Essay Example The paper gives detailed information about Amazon.com Inc. It conducts its business in various fields such as internet services, online retail, and the Kindle ecosystem. Amazon provides its services as Amazon Prime which has the facility of free of cost shipping within two days. It provides a free access to the kindle library (Johnson, et al., 2013). The other internet services provided by Amazon are referred to as Amazon Web Services and it is a side business as the company decided to lease out its services. Amazon is most commonly known as a low-cost retailer and provides its customers with wide range of products. The company started its online bookselling business and rapidly expanding the business to music as well as movies. It also offers online services in household goods as well as electronics (Johnson, et al., 2013). The retail strategy of Amazon also involves the company to act as a channel for the other retailers and earn a portion of revenue with the sale of the products. Amazon has also introduced the sale of used products in order to compete with the competitors such as eBay (Johnson, et al., 2013). The advertising strategies adopted by Amazon attract the customers in the global market and they are able to choose the products from their websites. The kindle ecosystem is part of their business model which is newly launched by Amazon as an electronic book reader and the company is confident that the customers will purchase enough electronic books (Johnson, et al., 2013).
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The following problems in the space provided Essay Answer the following questions and solve the following problems in the space provided. When you are done, save the file in the format flastname_Week_1_Problem_Set.docx, where flastname is your first initial and you last name, and submit it to the appropriate dropbox. Chapter 1 (page 19) 1. What is the most important difference between a corporation and all other organizational forms? Corporations has unlimited life time and limited liabilities and also has real entity and legal entity, because any stakeholder can sue against the corporation. Financing is very easy for investment in corporation. On the other hand, all other organizations have limited life span since it is directly owned by one person or partners and also have unlimited liabilities. Investment is very difficult since self-finance. 2. What does the phrase limited liability mean in a corporate context? Stakeholders liability is limited to the amount they invested in the corporations. Stockholders are not responsible for any encumbrances of the company specifically; they cannot be required to pay back any debts incurred by the firm. Therefore, anything that diminishes a propertyÃ¢â¬â¢s worth or makes it less useful or enjoyable; is not responsible by the owners in corporate context. 3. Which organizational forms give their owners limited liability? Corporations 4. What are the main advantages and disadvantages of organizing a firm as a corporation? Corporations are probably the dominant form of business organization in the United States. A corporation is a legal entity doing business, and is distinct from the individuals within the entity. Public corporations are owned by shareholders who elect a board of directors to oversee primary responsibilities. Along with standard, for-profit corporations, there are charitable, not-for-profit corporations. Advantages Unlimited commercial life. The corporation is an entity of its own and does not dissolve when ownership changes. Greater flexibility in raising capital through the sale of stock. Ease of transferring ownership by selling stock. Limited liability. This limited liability is probably the biggest advantage to organizing as a corporation. Individual owners in corporations have limits on their personal liability. Even if a corporation is sued for billions of dollars, individual shareholders liability is generally limited to the value of their own stock in the corporation. Disadvantages Regulatory restrictions. Corporations are typically more closely monitored by governmental agencies, including federal, state, and local. Complying with regulations can be costly. Higher organizational and operational costs. Corporations have to file articles of incorporation with the appropriate state authorities. These legal and clerical expenses, along with other recurring operational expenses, can contribute to budgetary challenges. Double taxation. The possibility of double taxation arises when companies declare and pay taxes on the net income of the corporation, which they pay through their corporate income tax returns. If the corporation also pays out dividends to individual shareholders, those shareholders must declare that dividend income as personal income and pay taxes at the individual income tax rates. Thus, the possibility of double taxation. 5. Explain the difference between an S corporation and a C corporation. The S corporation has the unique feature of passing its income through to its owners, so that the entity itself does not pay income taxes. The owners report the income on their tax returns, thereby avoiding the double taxation that arises in a regular C corporation, where the business is taxed on its income, and then the investors are taxed on the dividends they receive from the corporation. In addition, every shareholder of Ã¢â¬Å"SÃ¢â¬ corporation must be a United States resident or citizen. A C corporation or a partnership cannot be a shareholder, though estates and certain trusts and charities can be investors. In Ã¢â¬Å"SÃ¢â¬ corporation there can only be a single class of stock, which prevents preferential payments and voting privileges. Also there areÃ limited shareholders in S corporations which is not more than 75 but in C corporations there are unlimited shareholders.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
"I Heard The Owl Call My Name" and "The Black Robe": The Indians Although the Indians in I Heard The Owl Call My Name, and in The Black Robe are primitive in the technological sense, they are neither simple or emotional people. The Indians in both texts could be classed as primitive people - if we take primitive to mean technologically underdeveloped. The level of technology possessed by the white man is far superior to that of the Indians, yet the Indians in The Black Robe are happy to accept and use muskets, and in I Heard The Owl Call My Name they are familiar with motors, washing machines and modern building techniques brought by white man. The Indians display their level of ignorance in regard to modern technology in The Black Robe, when the enemy tribe believed that muskets could only be fired once and once fired, they are useless. The Indians had little knowledge of modern materials or tools. When comparing the Indians in The Black Robe to the Indians in I Heard The Owl Call My Name, we must take into account that The Black Robe was set two hundred and twenty years earlier than I Heard The Owl Call My Name, and white mans influence on the Indians in I Heard The Owl Call My Name was much greater. Technology did not play an important role in the Indian's way of life. Traditionally, the Indians lived off the land taking only what they needed, and their hunting and building methods had served them well for centuries, therefore their need to develop new technology would not have been great. The Indians are not simple or barbaric people. Their complex belief system and folklore related strongly to the environment and gave reasons for the